THE GHILZAIS OF KANDAHAR 311 The Rise of the Abdalis of Herat.—As may be supposed, the success of Mir Vais had fired other provinces inhabited by Sunni populations to revolt, and among them was neighbouring Herat, which under Asadulla, the Abdali* chief, declared its independence and joined with the Uzbegs to plunder Khorasan. To meet this invasion, in A.H. 1132 (1719) a Persian army, thirty thousand strong, was raised and placed under the orders of Safi Kuli Khan, who marched on Herat. On the way he met and defeated twelve thousand Uzbegs, and this victory was accepted as a presage of a second and more important success. Asadulla Khan, with only fifteen thousand Afghans, decided to engage the superior Persian force, and there was a hotly contested fight until by a mistake the Persian artillery fired on a body of their own cavalry. The error gave rise to a suspicion of treachery, which, reacting on the army, threw it into confusion. The Afghans, seeing their chance, made a decisive charge and won the day by their valour, the Persians losing one-third of their men, their general, their artillery, and their baggage. The loss to the Afghans was three thousand, or one-fifth of the army engaged; but the Abdalis, like their neighbours and rivals the Ghilzais, had won their freedom, and hence- forth constituted a second independent state on the eastern frontier of Persia. Their relations with the Ghilzais were unfriendly, and even after the capture of Isfahan they were successful in taking Farrah from them. 1 This tribe Is identical with the Durrani. The popular belief is that Ahmad Shah changed the name in consequence of a dream and assumed the title of Shah Dvr-i~Durran, or " Pearl of Pearls,"